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Common Speech and Language Problems
 
 
Speech/Language problems are commonly called "communication disorders."  A communication disorder can be receptive or expressive in nature.  The general disorder categories are language, articulation, fluency, voice and hearing.
Language Disorder- (a) receptive language disorder- impacts the ability  to understand what is being said  (b) expressive language disorder- impacts the ability to convey ideas and thoughts adequately.
Characteristics:  (1) below average verbal language skills (including sentence structure, grammar and syntax ) (2)difficulty expressing ideas clearly and precisely (3) poor expressive vocabulary  (often searches for words)  (4) difficulty understanding what has been said  and/or (5) difficulty followng verbal directions.
Articulation Disorder- difficulty producing or sequencing sounds in spoken language.
Characteristics: (1) articulation errors on certain sounds (2) poor intelligibility of speech and/or (3) difficulty saying sounds in corect order in multi-syllabic words.
Fluency Disorder -affects the rhythm and fluency of spoken speech.
Characteristics: (1)frequent hesitations on certain words (2) repetition of sounds or words in oral reading or in conversation (3) avoidance of certain words (often substituting other words or using gestures) and/or (4) avoidance of speaking tasks.
Voice Disorder- inappropriate pitch, loudness or quality of voice.
Characteristics: (1) excessive and persistent hoarse or raspy voice (2) abnormally high or low pitch voice in relation to age or gender (3) excessive pitch breaks and/or (5) excessive nasality.
Hearing Disorder- reduction in hearing acuity.
 Characteristics: (1) student often asks for repetition (2) student does not respond when called and/or (3) student does not turn in direction of sounds.